The Alps are a type of mountain range known as a "fold mountain." Fold mountains are created when two tectonic plates collide, causing the earth's crust to fold and uplift into a mountain range. The formation of the Alps began about 65 million years ago during the Cenozoic Era when the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided, causing the crust to uplift and fold. The Alps stretch \approx imately 1,200 kilometers across eight countries, including France, Italy, Switzerland, and Austria, and are the highest and most extensive mountain range in Europe.
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