Hunner's ulcer is a type of chronic inflammation in the bladder characterized by the presence of a single, well-defined, localized area of ulceration on the bladder wall. The exact cause of Hunner's ulcer is not fully understood, but it is believed to be a result of chronic irritation and inflammation of the bladder lining, possibly due to a combination of factors such as bladder infections, bladder dysfunction, autoimmune disorders, and genetic predisposition. The chronic inflammation can cause the bladder wall to thin and form an ulcer, which can be painful and lead to symptoms such as frequent urination, urgency, and pelvic pain. Treatment typically involves bladder instillations or surgeries to remove the ulcer and improve symptoms.
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