Forensic DNA analysis involves several steps that enable the comparison of DNA samples from a crime scene with those of a suspect. These steps include:
1. Sample Collection: The first step is to collect DNA samples from various sources, such as blood, hair, saliva, semen, and other bodily fluids found at the crime scene.
2. DNA Extraction: The DNA needs to be extracted from the samples collected at the crime scene. Several methods are used to isolate the DNA from the remaining cellular material.
3. Quantification and Amplification: Once DNA is extracted, its quantity is measured, and the DNA is amplified to get sufficient material to perform an analysis.
4. Analysis: The isolated DNA is then subjected to different methods of analysis, such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Short Tandem Repeat (STR). The analysis produces a DNA profile.
5. Matching and Interpretation: The DNA profile obtained from the sample collected from the crime scene is compared with that of the suspects DNA profile. If there is a match, the DNA evidence can be used to help solve the crime.
6. Reporting: The findings are documented into a report that can be used as evidence during the trial.
In summary, forensic DNA analysis is a process that involves collecting DNA samples, isolating and amplifying the DNA, analyzing the DNA profile, comparing it with a suspects profile, and documenting the findings in a report.
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