30.03.2023 - 08:49

Purification of nickel can be achieved by electrorefining nickel from an impure nickel anode onto a pure nickel cathode in an electrolytic cell. How many hours will it take to plate 20.0 kg of nickel onto the cathode if the current passed through the cell

Question:

Purification of nickel can be achieved by electrorefining nickel from an impure nickel anode onto a pure nickel cathode in an electrolytic cell. How many hours will it take to plate 20.0 kg of nickel onto the cathode if the current passed through the cell is held constant at 36.0 A? Assume the nickel in the electrolytic solution is present as {eq}Ni^{2+} {/eq}.

Answers (1)
  • Ina
    April 4, 2023 в 05:34
    We can use Faraday's law of electrolysis to solve this problem. The law states that the amount of substance (in moles) produced or consumed during electrolysis is directly proportional to the amount of electric charge passed through the cell. This relationship can be expressed as: moles of substance = (electric charge) / (Faraday's constant) where the electric charge is given by: electric charge = current x time and Faraday's constant is equal to: F = 96,485 C/mol for nickel, we know that the cathodic reaction is: Ni2+ + 2e- ? Ni which means that one mole of electrons is needed to produce one mole of nickel. Therefore, the amount of nickel plated on the cathode is equal to the amount of electrons passed through the cell divided by the number of electrons per mole of nickel: moles of nickel = (electric charge) / (Faraday's constant) / (2 electrons/mol) and the mass of nickel can be calculated using its molar mass of: atomic mass of Ni = 58.69 g/mol mass of nickel = moles of nickel x molar mass of Ni Substituting the given values: electric charge = current x time = 36.0 A x t moles of nickel = (36.0 A x t) / (96485 C/mol) / 2 = 0.0001867 t mass of nickel = 0.0001867 t x 58.69 g/mol x 1000 g/kg = 10.96 kg We can see that after one hour, only 10.96 kg of nickel will be plated on the cathode. To plate 20.0 kg of nickel, we need to solve for the time: t = (20.0 kg) / (10.96 kg/h) = 1.82 h Therefore, it will take about 1.82 hours to plate 20.0 kg of nickel onto the cathode.
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