Retinitis pigmentosa is not an autoimmune disease. It is a genetic disorder that affects the retina, which is the part of the eye responsible for sensing light and sending signals to the brain for visual perception. In retinitis pigmentosa, the cells in the retina that detect light (photoreceptor cells) deteriorate over time, leading to vision loss. While the exact cause of this disorder is still not completely understood, it is known to be caused by mutations in over 70 different genes. There is currently no known cure for retinitis pigmentosa, but treatments such as vitamin A supplements, gene therapy, and implantable devices can help slow down its progression and improve vision.
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