Goosebumps are caused by contractions of the arrector pili muscles, which are small muscles attached to hair follicles. When these muscles contract, the hair on our skin stands upright and causes tiny bumps to appear. This response is a reflex that occurs in response to various stimuli, such as cold temperatures or strong emotions like fear or excitement. It is an evolutionary adaptation that helped our ancestors appear larger and more threatening to potential predators when faced with danger.
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